Badminton is a sport in which two players or two teams consisting of two people compete. The goal of each of the players/teams is to throw a shuttlecock to the territory of the opponent in such a way that he or she cannot hit it. In order to score a point, the shuttlecock must touch the opponent's area.
History of Badminton
Badminton is considered one of the most ancient games known today. It derives from the battledore and shuttlecock game which was played in Ancient Greece, India, Japan, China, and even in several African countries. The essence of the game was to throw a special shuttlecock with a racket.
India is considered to be the birthplace of badminton. In this country, the prototype of the modern badminton appeared, it was the "Puna" game. Later, the sailors brought this game to England, where the game gradually began to gain its popularity. We owe the badminton in the form in which it exists now to English Duke of Beaufort. In 1973, while returning to his estate called Badminton House from a business trip in India, Duke of Beaufort brought the equipment for playing "Puna" game with him. Soon he involved his numerous relatives and the surrounding aristocrats in playing the game. Badminton House became the center of its development and popularization, and the game got its current name "badminton".
In 1934, the International Badminton Federation was created. This organization included Canada, Denmark, France, England, the Netherlands, Ireland, Scotland, New Zealand, and Wales. Under its guidance since 1947, the world badminton championships for men (Thomas Cup) started being held.
In 1992, badminton was included in the program of the Olympic Games. Since then, the popularity of badminton has been only growing in the world. It became especially popular in the countries of Southeast Asia.
Currently, badminton is dominated by the Asian athletes (China, the Republic of Korea, Indonesia), who win up to 90% of the medals at the world championships.
Before the start of the game, there is always a draw, which determines the parties and their right of the first serve.
At the first serve, the shuttlecock must be hit from the bottom and the racket must not rise above the server's belt. The use of fraudulent and false actions is allowed during such serving. After serving, the players are free to move around their area, but touching the net is strictly prohibited.
The maximum number of games that may constitute a match is three. Each game is won by a player or the team that scores 21 points. With the score of 20-20, one needs to score 2 points, and with the score of 29-29, it is enough to score one point.
A change of the sides occurs in the following situations:
- after the end of the first game;
- before the third game (if it is supposed to take place);
- after 11 points in the third game.
In each of the games, breaks are possible, but they should not last more than 1 minute. Also, they should occur provided that one of the sides scores 11 points. Breaks between games last 2 minutes.
Badminton court has a rectangular shape. The width of the court for a single game is 5.18 meters, and its length is 13.4 meters. For a doubles game, the width of the court should be 6.1 meters. The net is installed at a height of 1.55 meters; the height of the net in the center is 1,524 (when it is sagging). The net is limited above by a strip of 7.5-8 cm, which is folded in half.
Another integral part of the court is the markup. The width of the marking lines is 4 centimeters. At a distance of 1.98 meters from the grid, there is the service line. Between the service line and the back line, there is the service zone. The central line divides the service zone into the right and the left areas.
- Badminton rackets. Originally, the rackets were made of wood. Modern racquets are made of different materials including carbon fiber, aluminum, steel or titanium. The weight of the racket is approximately 70-100 grams. Most professional players use special wrapping on the racket handle ("grip"), which help the athletes to achieve the best control while holding the racket.
- Shuttlecock. There are two types of shuttlecocks: plastic ones and the ones with natural feathers. Plastic shuttlecocks are more suitable for amateurs and for some types of training. As a rule, the standard for competitions and training of professional athletes are feather shuttlecocks. A plastic shuttlecock consists of cork or synthetic head and a plastic "skirt" attached to it. The feather shuttlecock is made of 16 goose feathers and a cork head covered with fine husky leather. Feathers are glued into the holes around the circumference of the head. They are tied with thread, and the thread is also glued. The weight of the shuttlecock is about 5 grams.
At the championships and badminton tournaments refereeing is carried out by the following people:
- The referees who monitor the correctness of the serving, announce the score, monitor the correct course of the game, make the appropriate decisions during breaking the rules.
- Line referees.
- Serving referees.
The Olympic Games is the most prestigious badminton championship that is held every four years.
Thomas Cup is the world championships in men's badminton.
Uber Cup is women's world badminton championship.
Sudirman Cup is the world badminton championship for mixed teams, which is held every 2 years. The cup is named after Dick Sudirman, the founder of the Badminton Association in Indonesia.
The Super Series is an international badminton tournament which was founded by the World Badminton Federation to promote it.
Asian Games is the badminton competition between the athletes of the Asian countries.